PSI - Group
Diamond Beam Optic Elements
Staff : SH Connell, M Rebak, CM Levitte
Students R Setshedi (Wits)
Collaborators : A Freund (ESRF), J Haertwig (ESRF), J Hoszowska(ESRF),C Detlefs(ESRF),R Burns (DRL), JO Hansen(DRL)

There is a major problem associated with the impressive potential of the 3rd and 4th machines:
with the advent of undulators and the perfection of the electron beam technology, the brightness
of such machines is so great (the energy density is greater than that at the surface of the Sun!)
that the traditional material from which the monochromators are made, viz. Silicon, cannot take
the consequent high temperature bringing with it the danger of melting, of expansion and
distortion, and radiation damage.

Diamond is the only material that can survive these extreme conditions. However it is necessary to
have diamond of very good quality, in particular in regard to the mosaic spread. In collaboration with the
diamond synthesis division at DRL, we have been studying the detailed requirements for diamond
monochromators. Additional aspects have been the use of diamond in synchrotron target stations
as X-ray lenses, as quarter wave plates, as beam profile monitors, as multiplexers, inter alia.

The team has succeeded in bending diamond in one form of lens. Considerable progress has been
made in delimiting the properties required for the widespread use of diamonds grown at high
temperature and high pressure for these purposes.

The performance of diamond under high power illumination with X-Rays